Book 2005 
Trafford Publishing - Bloomington, Indiana, USA.
CLIMATE CHANGE & NAVAL WAR
A Scientific Assessment
     ONLINE - HERE

Recent
posts
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North Atlantic sea ice in summer 1917; 
contributing to the biggest climatic 
shift last century? 
And what caused this extraordinary event?

Posted by A. Bernaerts, 21 February 2014

 Never has such a high sea ice extent been observed in the North Atlantic as in summer 1917 (Fig.3). This exceptional case has never been investigated. Worst! Science seems not to have taken notice of it although thorough understanding of the event could possibly answer two important questions concerning climate change:

FIRST: Contribute the late icing and subsequent melting process to the sudden extraordinary warming at Svalbard and polar region (Fig.2 & 3) since winter 1918/19?  

SECOND: Contribute naval war around Great Britain since 1914 to the exceptional icing?

Fig. 1; March 1917

Fig. 2; April 1917

Fig. 3; May 1917

Fig. 4; July 1917

Although air temperatures at Svalbard fell to all time record low in winter 1917, sea ice conditions in March were usual (Fig. 1). In general annual sea ice extent is highest in April, but succeeded average already in April, Fig. 2; rising to a level by end of May, which presumably has not happen for more than 200 years or longer, Fig.3. Even in late July the sea ice remained at a unusual high level, Fig.4. This late and extensive icing process may have had a pronounced impact and ocean water structure, from sea level to may hundred meter depth, which could have influenced the most significant climatic change in the 20th Century, namely the Arctic and Northern Hemisphere warming that started 18 months later in winter 1918/19 (Fig. 5, 6 and 7)..

Fig. 5; Svalbard , T°C, seasons & annual

Fig. 6; Annual T°C north of 70°; 1900-2013 + Fig.15

The sudden temperature increase at Svalbard commented the Norwegian scientist B.J. Birkeland in 1930: “In conclusion I would like to stress that the mean deviation (at Svalbard , Fig. 5 & 7) results in very high figures, probably the greatest yet known on earth”[1]. Indeed, in any way exceptional. The significance for the entire Polar region is shown in Fig. 6  (15, 16) indicating the annual. According I. Schell (1956) such a situation may not have been duplicated earlier for 200 years and more (Fig. 8). It seems that the year 1866 is regarded as the most severe ice year (Fig. 9), but that relates to April while the case 1917 is in May/June.

 

Fig.7, Svalbard T°C annual means

Fig.8, I. Schell (1959) said:

Fig.9, Extreme sea ice years

 What contributed naval war in Europe since August 1914. In summer 1916 the naval war machinery entered a new dimension. Sea mines, sub-marines, torpedoes, depth charges, aerial bombing, were produce an masse and used. Now almost 5-10 merchant ships sunk every day. All water from SW Wales/UK and North Sea travelled northwards with an impact on the sea surface and ocean structure down to many dozen meters, Fig. 10-13.

Fig.10

Fig.11

Fig. 12 _No comment

Fig.13

 Exactly at the same time the summer season got a sea ice extent never observed and 1 ˝ years later the biggest temperature jump in the Northern North Atlantic and adjacent sector in the Arctic ever observed (Fig.14).  

  1. First QUESTION: What was the role and impact of navel war on the sea ice situation in the North Atlantic in summer 1917?
  2. Second QUESTION: What was the role and impact of summer sea ice on the ocean structure in the high North in winter 1918/19?
  3. Third QUESTION: What was the role and impact of naval war in Northern European waters on the Norwegian and West Spitsbergen Current and subsequently ocean structure between August 1914 and November 1918? 

The correlation between warming in the Arctic and naval war is evident. It seems time to investigate and prove it.   

Continue reading: http://www.seaclimate.com/i/i.html
& http://www.arctic-heats-up.com/chapter_8.html
 

Fig. 14; Main area of warming between 1920 and 1939

Fig. 15 & Fig. 16

 


 

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D-Day in June 1944 followed by worst summer storm,
which meteorology did not expected, reckon, or is able to explain!

First posted : www.what-is-vlimate.com , April 2010 
Revised and posted here: 17. June 2013 (co_7-4)
 
CONTINUE READING →→→→  

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Cold spring 2013 in NW-Europe will last through May.
The Atlantic & North Sea factor. 
Posted: 2. May 2013 (co_8-4)

Continue reading  →→→  


'Urgent' need to see if Arctic affects UK extreme cold? No! MetOffice should investigate the impact of human activities in the North- and Baltic Sea !

Posted: 11. April 2013 (co 9-4)  
Continue reading →→→  

 

The cold March 2013 and any anthropogenic contribution
needs to be investigated and explained!  
Material on winter 2012/13 and discussion at :  
02 May 2013: Cold spring 2013 in NW-Europe will last through May. The Atlantic & North Sea factor. (co_8-4)
23. April 2013: Met-Off loose talk on cold March 2013? North and Baltic Sea should not be ignored! (ocl_9-8)

11. April 2013: 'Urgent' need to see if Arctic affects UK extreme cold? No! MetOffice should investigate the impact of human activities in the North- and Baltic Sea ! (co_9-4) 
03 April 2013: Did the cold March 2013 came from Siberia ? A not well founded claim! (ocl_9-9) 
29 March 2013: Cold March 2013 in company with March 1942 & 1917 (co 10-2)  
27. March 2013: Strong Start – Strong Ending; Winter 2012/13. About the Role of North- and Baltic Sea (2007seatraining 1310)
26. March 2013; March 2013 snow in the UK and the North Sea . Did human activities contributed? (ocl 10_2) 
21 March 2013; Cold March 2013 in UK and North Europe science should be able to explain! (ocl_10-3) 
07 March 2013:  Winter 2012/13 for Northern Europe is over! The Baltic and North Sea will prevent a surprise in March! (ocl-10_4)
19. January 2013: Northern Europe's bulwark against Asian cold from 19-31. (oc_12-8)
14. January 2013: North- and Baltic Sea influence Europe ’s winter 2012/2013 until now. (ocl_12_6) 
09 December 2012 (+ 21 & 26 Dec) : Are we heading to severe Baltic Sea ice conditions by 30th December 2012? (2007seatraining)

 

 

Eight lectures - 2013


Lecture 1: Click on image for PDF
Three Extreme Winter 1939/40, 1940/41 & 1941/42 Man Made
Due to Naval Warfare

Lecture 1: All 24 slides with comments 
HERE

Lecture 2: Click on image for PDF
Only four months needed for a man made extreme winter 1939/40?
The naval war share – A proof in three steps!

 
Click on image for PDF
Cold Pole over Skagerrak  
Winter 1940/41.
Occupation of Norway contribute 
to extreme winter.


Click on image for PDF
Worst weather forecast ever finished Blitzkrieg on 5th December 1941!
How Hitler shot himself in the foot! Failure of meteorology - a boon to mankind!


Click on image for PDF
3rd Extreme War Winter 1941/42 was predictable! Naval war caused weather that stopped Wehrmacht to reach Moscow !


Click on image for PDF

Two World Wars! Two Climate Changes!
The Role of Naval Warfare!

 
Click on image for PDF

Did Naval War in the Pacific 
contribute to climate change?
 
PDO shift 1943/46 & Japan ’s record temperatures 1945. 


Click on image for PDF
Arctic Warming 1919-1939. Did Four Years Naval war Started it?


Read the new Book Publication - 2012: 

"Failures of Meteorology? Unable to Prevent Climate Change and World Wars?"   

www.seaclimate.com
Details below.

Recent Posts: 

17.Juni 2013;
 D-Day in June 1944 followed by worst summer storm,
which meteorology did not expected, reckon, or is able to explain!  (co_7-4)

14. May: 

Met Office brainstorms UK bad weather, titles THE GUARDIAN – 13. May 2013 (ocl_7-9)

02.May 2013: Cold spring 2013 in NW-Europe will last through May. The Atlantic & North Sea factor. (co_8-4)

23. April 2013: Met-Off loose talk on cold March 2013? North and Baltic Sea should not be ignored! (ocl_9-8)

11. April 2013: 'Urgent' need to see if Arctic affects UK extreme cold? No! MetOffice should investigate the impact of human activities in the North- and Baltic Sea ! (co_9-4) 

03 April 2013: Did the cold March 2013 came from Siberia ? A not well founded claim! (ocl_9-9) 

29 March 2013: Cold March 2013 in company with March 1942 & 1917 (co 10-2)  

27. March 2013: Strong Start – Strong Ending; Winter 2012/13. About the Role of North- and Baltic Sea (2007seatraining 1310)

26. March 2013; March 2013 snow in the UK and the North Sea . Did human activities contributed? (ocl 10_2) 

21 March 2013; Cold March 2013 in UK and North Europe science should be able to explain! (ocl_10-3) 

20 March 13: Mark Maslin and Patrick Austin on: “Uncertainty: Climate models at their limit?” Do they understand too little from climate to discuss the matter sufficiently? (co-10-3)

1. Feb.13: Hamburger cold record on 13 January 1940  has an anthropogenic cause!  (co-11-9 )

19 January 2013: Northern Europe 's bulwark against Asian cold from 19-31. January 2013 (co-12-8)

14. January 2013: North- and Baltic Sea influence Europe ’s winter 2012/2013 until now. --left-- (COL-12-6)

07. Jan. 2013: Record cold in Poland ! Minus 41°C on 11th Jan.1940 in Siedlce! (OCL-12-7)

23. Dec. 2012 + Update 17/01:  Had the Battle of Stalingrad been hampered by unusual low temperatures in December 1942? (OCL-12-8 

 

Terms & Conditions

            

    

BOOK 2009

U.S.A: iUniverse, Bloomington, IN 47403, ISBN 978-1-4401-4087-7. 

Europe: Books on Demand GmbH,
ISBN 978-3-8370-9524-1.
Online: Click on image

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 Recent posts  

17.Juni 2013; D-Day in June 1944 followed by worst summer storm, which meteorology did not expected, reckon, or is able to explain!  (co_7-4)
14. June 2013: Met Office brainstorms UK bad weather, titles THE GUARDIAN – 13. June - (ocl_7-9)

02 May: Cold spring 2013 in NW-Europe will last through May. (co_8-4)

23. April 2013: Met-Off loose talk on cold March 2013? North and Baltic Sea should not be ignored! (ocl_9-8)

11. April 2013: 'Urgent' need to see if Arctic affects UK extreme cold? No! MetOffice should investigate the impact of human activities in the North- and Baltic Sea ! (co_9-4) 

04 April 2013: Did the cold March 2013 came from Siberia ?  A not well founded claim! 

29 March 2012: Cold March 2013 in company with March 1942 & 1917 (co 10-2)   

26. March 2013; March 2013 snow in the UK and the North Sea . Did human activities contributed? (ocl 10_2)

21 March 2013; Cold March 2013 in UK and North Europe science should be able to explain! (ocl_10-3)  

20 March 13:
Mark Maslin and Patrick Austin on: “Uncertainty: Climate models at their limit?” Do they understand too little from climate to discuss the matter sufficiently?

1st Feb.13: Hamburger cold record on 13 January 1940  has an anthropogenic cause!  (co-11-9 )

19 January 2013: Northern Europe 's bulwark against Asian cold from 19-31. January 2013 (co-12-8)

14. January 2013: North- and Baltic Sea influence Europe ’s winter 2012/2013 until now. --left-- (COL-12-6)

07. Jan. 2013: Record cold in Poland ! Minus 41°C on 11th Jan.1940 in Siedlce! (OCL-12-7)

23. Dec. 2012 + Update 17/01:  Had the Battle of Stalingrad been hampered by unusual low temperatures in December 1942? (OCL-12-8 

December 15, 2012: The impact of shipping on ocean and global warming (COL-12-9)

Dec. 09. 2012 (+ updates):  Are we heading to severe   Baltic Sea ice conditions by 30th December 2012? (2007seatraining)

December 2012:
Roger Pielke Sr. and Climate Definition - A field of jargon words and misuse of definitions – (whatisclimate)

 

 

       BOOK 2012

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


                       Europe: Books on Demand GmbH, ISBN 987-3-8448-1284-8,
Pages: 232, about 170 figures and 14 pages in color with temperature maps.
                                    
Online: Click on image

Material 
  INFO

Euro-Countries
Temp.-Trend

Nasa-Global
Temp.-1939-1942

September 1939 
30 daily weather maps 

Sea Ice Condition 
Baltic Sea WWII


To the book click on image

Edition 2005
Online: Click
HERE

Trafford Publishing - Bloomington, Indiana, USA.

 

Main Sites on Climate Change during World Wars
Book 2012: http://www.seaclimate.com/
Home: http://www.ocean-climate-law.com/
Home: http://www.oceanclimate.de/
Arctic Warming 1919 – A World War I Issue
Books: http://www.arctic-heats-up.com/
Home: http://www.arctic-warming.com/
Books 2005/06
Book 2005: http://climate-ocean.com/book%202012/index.html
Ditto (short version): http://www.warchangesclimate.com
 Booklet 2006: http://www.1ocean-1climate.com/
Booklet in Russian 2006: http://www.1okeah-1klimat.com
 
Brief
contributions
http://www.2007seatraining.de/
http://www.whatisclimate.com/


Reference SEA-LAW (UNCLOS) links :
http://www.bernaerts-sealaw.com , http://www.bernaerts-guide.de
http://www.bernaerts-guide-russian.de ,http://www.bernaerts-unclos.de
Material in German

Book: http://www.seatraining.de/
Home:  http://www.ozeanklima.de/
Miscellaneous
http://www.1ocean-1system.de/ , http://www.seatraining.net ,